For 1 cup of cake flour, measure 1 cup of all purpose flour. Remove 2 tablespoons and replace with 2 tablespoons of cornstarch. Sift together.
For every 1 cup of self rising flour, substitute a combination of 1 cup of all purpose flour, 1 1/2 tsp of baking powder and 1/4 tsp of salt.
All Purpose Flour
For every 1 cup of all purpose flour, substitute an equal amount of bread flour or a blend of ½ cup whole wheat flour and ½ cup spelt flour.
For 1 teaspoon of baking powder, combine ¼ teaspoon baking soda with ½ teaspoon cream of tartar and ¼ teaspoon cornstarch.
Substitute an equal amount of shortening.
Substitute an equal amount of melted butter or olive oil.
For 1 cup of heavy cream, substitute ¼ cup cooled melted butter and ¾ cup whole milk.
For every 1 cup of buttermilk, stir 1 tablespoon white vinegar or lemon juice into 1 cup milk.
Substitute an equal amount of yogurt.
For every 1 cup of brown sugar, add 2 tablespoons of molasses or maple syrup to 1 cup of granulated sugar.
For every 1 cup of confectioners' sugar, measure 1 cup of granulated sugar. Remove 1 teaspoon of sugar and replace with 1 teaspoon cornstarch. Pulse mixture in blender or food processor until finely ground.
Substitute an equal amount of maple syrup or agave nectar.